Congressional Research Service (CRS)
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects
Clinton T. Brass, Coordinator, Specialist in Government Organization and Management
April 23, 2013
[full-text, 23 pages]
When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they experience a funding gap.
Under the Antideficiency Act, they must cease operations, except in certain emergency situations
or when law authorizes continued activity. Failure of the President and Congress to reach
agreement on interim or full-year funding measures occasionally has caused government
shutdowns, the longest of which lasted 21 days, from December 16, 1995, to January 6, 1996.
Government shutdowns have necessitated furloughs of several hundred thousand federal
employees, required cessation or reduction of many government activities, and affected numerous
sectors of the economy. This report discusses the causes, processes, and effects of federal
government shutdowns, including potential issues for Congress.
For questions concerning the impact of a shutdown on a specific agency or program,
congressional operations, or judicial operations, please call CRS at 7-5700. See also the "Key
Policy Staff" table at the end of this report.
For analysis of potential effects of a shutdown on the Department of Defense, see CRS Report
R41745, Government Shutdown: Operations of the Department of Defense During a Lapse in
Appropriations, by Pat Towell and Amy Belasco.
For analysis of the government's contractual rights and how it could use these in the event of a
shutdown, see CRS Report R42469, Government Procurement in Times of Fiscal Uncertainty, by
Kate M. Manuel and Erika K. Lunder.
For discussion of funding gaps, see CRS Report RS20348, Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief
Overview, by Jessica Tollestrup.
For an annotated list of historical documents and other resources related to past government
shutdowns, see CRS Report R41759, Past Government Shutdowns: Key Resources, by Jared
Conrad Nagel and Justin Murray.