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Thursday, May 09, 2013

CRS: Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects


Congressional Research Service (CRS)


Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Clinton T. Brass, Coordinator, Specialist in Government Organization and Management

April 23, 2013

[full-text, 23 pages]



When federal agencies and programs lack appropriated funding, they experience a funding gap.

Under the Antideficiency Act, they must cease operations, except in certain emergency situations

or when law authorizes continued activity. Failure of the President and Congress to reach

agreement on interim or full-year funding measures occasionally has caused government

shutdowns, the longest of which lasted 21 days, from December 16, 1995, to January 6, 1996.

Government shutdowns have necessitated furloughs of several hundred thousand federal

employees, required cessation or reduction of many government activities, and affected numerous

sectors of the economy. This report discusses the causes, processes, and effects of federal

government shutdowns, including potential issues for Congress.


For questions concerning the impact of a shutdown on a specific agency or program,

congressional operations, or judicial operations, please call CRS at 7-5700. See also the "Key

Policy Staff" table at the end of this report.


For analysis of potential effects of a shutdown on the Department of Defense, see CRS Report

R41745, Government Shutdown: Operations of the Department of Defense During a Lapse in

Appropriations, by Pat Towell and Amy Belasco.


For analysis of the government's contractual rights and how it could use these in the event of a

shutdown, see CRS Report R42469, Government Procurement in Times of Fiscal Uncertainty, by

Kate M. Manuel and Erika K. Lunder.


For discussion of funding gaps, see CRS Report RS20348, Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief

Overview, by Jessica Tollestrup.


For an annotated list of historical documents and other resources related to past government

shutdowns, see CRS Report R41759, Past Government Shutdowns: Key Resources, by Jared

Conrad Nagel and Justin Murray.


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